useReducer() Hook in React

By Hemanta Sundaray on 2022-07-30

The useReducer hook is similar to the useState hook in React, but lets us move the state update logic from event handlers into a single function outside of the component.

The useReducer() hook has the following signature:

const [state, dispatch] = useReducer(reducer, initialArg, init)
  • reducer: The reducer function takes state and action as arguments and returns the next state.
  • initialArg: The value from which the initial state is calculated.
  • init: The initializer fiction that specifies how the initial state is calculated. If it’s not specified, the initial state is set to initialArg. Otherwise, the initial state is the result of calling init(initialArg).

useReducer returns an array with with exactly two items:

  • state: The current state of the state variable. This is set to init(initialArg) or or initialArg (if there is no init).
  • dispatch: The dispatch function changes the state in response to an action by the user and triggers a re-render. An action is usually an object with a type property identifying it and optionally other properties (payload for example) with additional information.


import React, { useState, useReducer } from "react"

const counterReducer = (state, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case "increment": {
      return { count: state.count + 1 }
    case "incrementByValue": {
      return { count: state.count + Number(action.payload) }
    case "decrement": {
      return { count: state.count - 1 }
      throw Error(`Unknown action: ${action.type}`)

const counterInitialState = () => {
  return {
    count: 0,

const Counter = () => {
  const [state, dispatch] = useReducer(

  const [incrementValue, setIncrementValue] = useState(null)

  const handleChange = e => {

  const actionCreator = (type, payload) => {
    return {

  return (
    <div className="container">
      <button onClick={() => dispatch(actionCreator("increment"))}>+</button>
      <button onClick={() => dispatch(actionCreator("decrement"))}>-</button>
        onClick={() =>
          dispatch(actionCreator("incrementByValue", incrementValue))
        Increment By Value
      <input value={incrementValue} type="number" onChange={handleChange} />
      <p>The input value is {incrementValue}</p>

export default Counter

Line 26:30: Notice that we have passed null as the second argument to the useReducer hook. This is because the counterInitialState function does not need an argument to calculate the initial state.

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